Docker Reference

Brief Docker overview and workflows to help you get started with Docker and Orka.

Docker concepts

Docker is a platform for developers and sysadmins to develop, deploy, and run applications with containers

The use of Linux containerscontainers - A container is a standard unit of software that packages up code and all its dependencies so the application runs quickly and reliably from one computing environment to another. In Orka, VM configurations and VMs are Docker containers. to deploy applications is called containerization. Containers are not new, but their use for easily deploying applications is.

Containerization is increasingly popular because containers are:
Flexible: Even the most complex applications can be containerized.
Lightweight: Containers leverage and share the host kernel.
Interchangeable: You can deploy updates and upgrades on-the-fly.
Portable: You can build locally, deploy to the cloud, and run anywhere.
Scalable: You can increase and automatically distribute container replicas.
Stackable: You can stack services vertically and on-the-fly.

Images and containers

A containercontainer - A container is a standard unit of software that packages up code and all its dependencies so the application runs quickly and reliably from one computing environment to another. In Orka, VM configurations and VMs are Docker containers. is launched by running an image. An imageimage - A disk image that represents a VM's storage and its contents, including the OS and any installed software. is an executable package that includes everything needed to run an application – the code, a runtime, libraries, environment variables, and configuration files.

A containercontainer - A container is a standard unit of software that packages up code and all its dependencies so the application runs quickly and reliably from one computing environment to another. In Orka, VM configurations and VMs are Docker containers. is a runtime instance of an imageimage - A disk image that represents a VM's storage and its contents, including the OS and any installed software. – what the imageimage - A disk image that represents a VM's storage and its contents, including the OS and any installed software. becomes in memory when executed (that is, an image with state, or a user process). You can see a list of your running containerscontainers - A container is a standard unit of software that packages up code and all its dependencies so the application runs quickly and reliably from one computing environment to another. In Orka, VM configurations and VMs are Docker containers. with the
command, docker ps, just as you would in Linux.

Containers and virtual machines

A containercontainer - A container is a standard unit of software that packages up code and all its dependencies so the application runs quickly and reliably from one computing environment to another. In Orka, VM configurations and VMs are Docker containers. runs natively on Linux and shares the kernel of the host machine with other containers. It runs a discrete process, taking no more memory than any other executable, making it lightweight.

By contrast, a virtual machine (VM) runs a full-blown “guest” operating system with virtual access to host resources through a hypervisor. In general, VMVM - A virtual machine deployed on a node from an existing VM configuration or cloned from an existing virtual machine. In the case of macOS VMs, this is a full macOS VM inside of a Docker container.s provide an environmentenvironment - A MacStadium cloud environment with an enabled Orka service. with more resources than most applications need.

Prepare your Docker environment

Install a maintained version of Docker Community Edition (CE) or Enterprise Edition (EE) on a supported platform.

For full Kubernetes Integration
KubernetesKubernetes - An open-source system for automating deployment, scaling, and management of containerized applications. Kubernetes sits at the core of Orka. on Docker Desktop for Mac is available in 17.12 Edge (mac45)or17.12 Stable (mac46)and higher.
KubernetesKubernetes - An open-source system for automating deployment, scaling, and management of containerized applications. Kubernetes sits at the core of Orka. on Docker Desktop for Windows is available in 18.02 Edge (win50)and higher edge channels only.

Test Docker version

  1. Run docker --version and ensure that you have a supported version of Docker:
$ docker --version
Docker version 17.12.0 -ce, build c97c6d65.
  1. Run $ docker info (or $ docker version without --) to view even more details about your Docker installation:
$ docker info
Containers: 0  
Running: 0  
Paused: 0  
Stopped: 0  
Images: 0  
Server Version: 17.12.0-ce  
Storage Driver: overlay2
...

To avoid permission errors (and the use of sudo), add your useruser - To work with Orka, you need to have a user with an assigned license. You will use this user and the respective credentials to authenticate against the Orka service. After being authenticated against the service, you can run Orka CLI commands and Orka API calls. to the docker group.

Test Docker installation

  1. Test that your installation works by running the simple Docker imageimage - A disk image that represents a VM's storage and its contents, including the OS and any installed software., hello-world:

Run:

$ docker run hello-world
Unable to find image 'hello-world:latest' locally
latest: Pulling from library/hello-world
ca4f61b1923c: Pull complete
Digest: 
sha256:ca0eeb6fb05351dfc8759c20733c91def84cb8007aa89a5bf606bc8b315b9fc7
Status: Downloaded newer image for hello-world:latest
Hello from Docker!```

This message shows that your installation appears to be working correctly.

1. List the hello-world image that was downloaded to your machine:

$ docker image ls


1. List the hello-world container (which has been spawned by the <<glossary:image>> of the same name) that exits after displaying its message. If it were still running, you would not need the --all option:

$ docker container ls --all

CONTAINER ID IMAGE COMMAND CREATED STATUS
54f4984ed6a8 hello-world "/hello" 20 seconds ago Exited (0)19 seconds ago```

Recap and cheat sheet

# List Docker CLI commands
$ docker
$ docker container --help

# Display Docker version and info
$ docker --version
$ docker version
$ docker info

# Execute Docker image
$ docker run hello-world

# List Docker images
$ docker image ls

# List Docker containers (running, all, all in quiet mode)
$ docker container ls
$ docker container ls--all
$ docker container ls-aq

Containerization makes CI/CD seamless. For example:

• applications have no system dependencies
• updates can be pushed to any part of a distributed application
resource density can be optimized.

With Docker, scaling your application is a matter of spinning up new executables, not running heavy VMVM - A virtual machine deployed on a node from an existing VM configuration or cloned from an existing virtual machine. In the case of macOS VMs, this is a full macOS VM inside of a Docker container. hosts.

Getting started with Docker

It’s time to begin building an app the Docker way. We start at the bottom of the hierarchy of such app, a containercontainer - A container is a standard unit of software that packages up code and all its dependencies so the application runs quickly and reliably from one computing environment to another. In Orka, VM configurations and VMs are Docker containers.. Above this level is a serviceservice - You can allow access to and manage the networking and connectivity for your Orka VMs through Kubernetes services., which defines how containers behave in production. Finally, at the top level is the stack, defining the interactions of all the servicesservices - You can allow access to and manage the networking and connectivity for your Orka VMs through Kubernetes services..

• Stack
servicesservices - You can allow access to and manage the networking and connectivity for your Orka VMs through Kubernetes services.
• Container (you are here)

Your new development environment

In the past, if you were to start writing a Python app, your first order of business was to install a Python runtime onto your machine. But that creates a situation where the environmentenvironment - A MacStadium cloud environment with an enabled Orka service. on your machine needs to be perfect for your app to run as expected, and also needs to match your production environmentenvironment - A MacStadium cloud environment with an enabled Orka service..

With Docker, you can just grab a portable Python runtime as an imageimage - A disk image that represents a VM's storage and its contents, including the OS and any installed software., no installation necessary. Then, your build can include the base Python image right alongside your app code, ensuring that your app, its dependencies, and the runtime, all travel together.

These portable images are defined by something called a Dockerfile.

Define a container with Dockerfile

Dockerfile defines what goes on in the environmentenvironment - A MacStadium cloud environment with an enabled Orka service. inside your container. Access to resources like networking interfaces and disk drives is virtualized inside this environmentenvironment - A MacStadium cloud environment with an enabled Orka service., which is isolated from the rest of your system, so you need to map ports to the outside world andbe specific about what files you want to “copy in” to that environmentenvironment - A MacStadium cloud environment with an enabled Orka service.. However, after doing that, you can expect that the build of your app defined in this Dockerfile behaves exactly the same wherever it runs.

Dockerfile

Create an empty directory on your local machine. Change directories (cd) into the new directory, create a file called Dockerfile, copy-and-paste the following content into that file, and save it. Take note of the comments that explain each statement in your new Dockerfile.

# Use an official Python runtime as a parent image
FROM python:2.7-slim

# Set the working directory to /app
WORKDIR /app

# Copy the current directory contents into the container at /app
COPY . /app

# Install any needed packages specified in requirements.txt
RUN pip install --trusted-hostpypi.python.org -r requirements.txt

# Make port 80 available to the world outside this container
EXPOSE 80

# Define environment variable
ENVNAME World

# Run app.py when the container launches
CMD ["python", "app.py"]```

This `Dockerfile` refers to a couple of files we haven’t created yet, namelyapp.py and requirements.txt. Let’s create those next.

**The app itself**

Create two more files, `requirements.txt` and `app.py`, and put them in the same folder with the `Dockerfile`. This completes our app, which as you can see is quite simple. When the above `Dockerfile` is built into an <<glossary:image>>, `app.py` and `requirements.txt` are present because of that `Dockerfile`’s `COPY` command, and the output from `app.py ` is accessible over HTTP thanks to the `EXPOSE` command.

*requirements.txt*

Flask
Redis```

app.py

from flask import Flask
from redis import Redis,RedisError
import os
import socket

# Connect to Redis
redis = Redis(host="redis",db=0,socket_connect_timeout=2,socket_timeout=2)

app = Flask(__name__)

@app.route("/")
def hello():
    try:
        visits = redis.incr("counter")
    except RedisError:
        visits = "<i>cannot connect to Redis, counter disabled</i>"
    html = "<h3>Hello {name}!</h3>"\
               "<b>Hostname:</b> {hostname}<br/>"\
               "<b>Visits:</b {visits}"
    return html.format(name=os.getenv("NAME","world"),
hostname=socket.gethostname(),visits=visits)

if__name__ == "__main__":
    app.run(host='0.0.0.0',port=80)```

Now we see that `pip install -r requirements.txt` installs the Flask and Redis libraries for Python, and the app prints the <<glossary:environment>> variable `NAME`, as well as the output of a call to `socket.gethostname()`. Finally, because Redis isn’t running (as we’ve only installed the Python library, and not Redis itself), we should expect that the attempt to use it here fails and produces the error message.



[block:callout]
{
  "type": "info",
  "title": "",
  "body": "Accessing the name of the host when inside a container retrieves the container ID, which is like the process ID for a running executable."
}
[/block]

That’s it! You don’t need Python or anything in `requirements.txt` on your system, nor does building or running this <<glossary:image>> install them on your system. It doesn’t seem like you’ve really set up an <<glossary:environment>> with Python and Flask, but you have.

## **Build the app**

We are ready to build the app. Make sure you are still at the top level of your new directory. Here’s what `ls` should show:

$ ls
Dockerfile app.py requirements.txt```

Now run the build command. This creates a Docker image, which we’re going to name using the --tag option. Use -t if you want to use the shorter option.

docker build --tag = friendlyhello .```

Where is your built image? It’s in your machine’s local Docker image registry:

$ docker image ls
REPOSITORY TAG IMAGE ID
friendlyhello latest 326387cea398```

Note how the tag defaulted to latest. The full syntax for the tag option would be something like --tag=friendlyhello:v0.0.1.

Troubleshooting for Linux users

Proxy server settings

Proxy servers can block connections to your web app once it’s up and running. If you are behind a proxy server, add the following lines to your Dockerfile, using theENVcommand to specify the host and port for your proxy servers:

# Set proxy server, replace host:port with values for your servers
ENV http_proxy host:port
ENV https_proxy host:port```

**DNS settings**

DNS misconfigurations can generate problems with `pip`. You need to set your own DNS server address to make `pip` work properly. You might want to change the DNS settings of the Docker daemon. You can edit (or create) the configuration file at `/etc/docker/daemon.json` with the `dns` key, as follows:

{"dns":["your_dns_address","8.8.8.8"]}```

In the example above, the first element of the list is the address of your DNS server. The second item is Google’s DNS which can be used when the first one is not available.

Before proceeding, save daemon.json and restart the docker serviceservice - You can allow access to and manage the networking and connectivity for your Orka VMs through Kubernetes services..

sudo service docker restart```

Once fixed, retry running the `build` command.

## **Run the app**

Run the app, mapping your machine’s port 4000 to the <<glossary:container>>’s published port 80 using -p:

docker run -p 4000:80 friendlyhello```

You should see a message that Python is serving your app at http://0.0.0.0:80. But that message is coming from inside the container, which doesn’t know you mapped port 80 of that container to 4000, making the correct URL http://localhost:4000.

Go to that URL in a web browser to see the display content served up on a web page.

📘

If you are using Docker Toolbox on Windows 7, use the Docker Machine IP instead oflocalhost. For example, http://192.168.99.100:4000/. To find the Machine IP, use the command docker-machine ip.

You can also use the curl command in a shell to view the same content.

$ curl http://localhost:4000

<h3>Hello World!</h3><b>Hostname:</b> 8fc990912a14<br/><b>Visits:</b> 
<i>cannot connect to Redis, counter disabled</i>```

This port remapping of `4000:80` demonstrates the difference between `EXPOSE` within the `Dockerfile` and what the publish value is set to when running `docker run -p`. In later steps, map port 4000 on the host to port 80 in the container and use `http://localhost`.

Hit `CTRL+C` in your terminal to quit.

## **On Windows, explicitly stop the container**

On Windows systems, `CTRL+C` does not stop the container. So, first type `CTRL+C` to get the prompt back (or open another shell), then type `docker container ls` to list the running containers, followed by`docker container stop <Container NAME or ID>` to stop the container. 

Otherwise, you get an error response from the daemon when you try to re-run the <<glossary:container>> in the next step.Now let’s run the app in the background, in detached mode:

docker run -d -p 4000:80 friendlyhello```

You get the long container ID for your app and then are kicked back to your terminal. Your container is running in the background. You can also see the abbreviated containercontainer - A container is a standard unit of software that packages up code and all its dependencies so the application runs quickly and reliably from one computing environment to another. In Orka, VM configurations and VMs are Docker containers. ID with docker container ls (and both work interchangeably when running commands):

$ docker container ls

CONTAINER ID        IMAGE               COMMAND             CREATED
1fa4ab2cf395        friendlyhello       "python app.py"     28 seconds ago```

Notice that `CONTAINER ID` matches what’s on `http://localhost:4000`. Now use `docker container stop` to end the process, using the `CONTAINER ID`, like so:

docker container stop 1fa4ab2cf395```

Share your image

To demonstrate the portability of what we just created, let’s upload our built image and run it somewhere else. After all, you need to know how to push to registries when you want to deploy containers to production.

A registry is a collection of repositories, and a repository is a collection of images—sort of like a GitHub repository, except the code is already built. An account on a registry can create many repositories. The dockerCLI uses Docker’s public registry by default.

📘

We use Docker’s public registry here just because it’s free and pre-configured, but there are many public ones to choose from, and you can even set up your own private registry usingDocker Trusted Registry.

Log in with your Docker ID

If you don’t have a Docker accountaccount - An Orka user. When used as "MacStadium account", this term refers to your account in the MacStadium portal., sign up for one at hub.docker.com. Make note of your username.

Log in to the Docker public registry on your local machine:

$ docker login```

**Tag the image**

The notation for associating a local image with a repository on a registry is `username/repository:tag`. The tag is optional, but recommended, since it is the mechanism that registries use to give Docker images a version. Give the repository and tag meaningful names for the context, such as `get-started:part2`. This puts the image in the get-started repository and tag it as `part2`.

Now, put it all together to tag the image. Rundocker tag imagewith your username, repository, and tag names so that the image uploads to your desired destination. The syntax of the command is:

docker tag image username/repository:tag```

For example:

docker tag friendlyhello gordon/get-started:part2```

Run `docker image ls` to see your newly tagged image.

$ docker image ls
REPOSITORY TAG IMAGE ID CREATED SIZE
friendlyhello latest d9e555c53008 3 minutes ago 195MBgordon/get-started
part2 d9e555c53008 3 minutes ago 195MBpython 2.7-slim 1c7128a655f6 5 days ago 183MB...```

Publish the image

Upload your tagged image to the repository:

docker push username/repository:tag```

Once complete, the results of this upload are publicly available. If you log in toDocker Hub, you see the new image there, with its pull command.

**Pull and run the image from the remote repository**

From now on, you can use `docker run` and run your app on any machine with this command:

docker run -p4000:80 username/repository:tag```

If the image isn’t available locally on the machine, Docker pulls it from the repository.

$ docker run -p4000:80 gordon/get-started:part2

Unable to find image 'gordon/get-started:part2'locally
part2: Pulling from gordon/get-started
10a267c67f42: Already exists

f68a39a6a5e4: Already exists

9beaffc0cf19: Already exists

3c1fe835fb6b: Already exists

4c9f1fa8fcb8: Already exists

ee7d8f576a14: Already exists

fbccdcced46e: Already exists

Digest: 

sha256:0601c866aab2adcc6498200efd0f754037e909e5fd42069adeff72d1e2439068Status: Downloaded newer image for gordon/get-started:part2*Running on http://0.0.0.0:80/ (Press CTRL+C to quit)```

No matter where `docker run` executes, it pulls your image, along with Python and all the dependencies from `requirements.txt`, and runs your code. It all travels together in a neat little package, and you don’t need to install anything on the host machine for Docker to run it.

 

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